The term epigenetics
refers to heritable changes in phenotype (appearance) or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. This change is accomplished by modification of chromatin
, eg. g. DNA (methylation
of cytosine) or acetylation
or methylation of histones
Biomol offers several tools for the researcher, which are presented here.
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP
for short) is a method used to determine the location of DNA binding sites on the genome for a particular protein of interest. This technique gives a picture of the protein-DNA interactions that occur inside the nucleus of living cells or tissues.
The principle of this assay is that DNA-binding proteins (including transcription factors and (modified) histones) in living cells can be cross-linked to the DNA that they are binding. By using an antibody that is specific to a putative DNA binding protein, one can immunoprecipitate the protein-DNA complex out of cellular lysates. Following crosslinking, the cells are lysed and the DNA is broken into pieces 0.2 kB (for classic PCR detection) to 1 kb (for qPCR detection) in length by sonication. At this point the immunoprecipitation is performed resulting in the purification of protein-DNA complexes. The purified protein-DNA complexes are then heated to reverse the formaldehyde cross-linking of the protein and DNA complexes, allowing the DNA to be separated from the proteins. The identity and quantity of the DNA fragments isolated can then be determined by PCR or - more precisely - by qPCR.
Biomols offers a ChIP kit for PCR detection.
Imgenex QuikChIP™ Kits for classical PCR detection
Imgenex offesr a range of ChIP products (more Info
ChIP qualified Antibodies
In order to immunoprecipitate chromatin you need antibodies capable to do so: Imgenex offers several ones
as well as Bethyl
and Rockland Immunochemicals
. For a complete listing please click [here
Histone ELISA Kits and Antibodies
If you are interested in determination of the amount of a specific histone modification, you can detect it with specific antibodies via western blotting
, immunostaining (IHC
) or by ELISA
There are antibodies specific phosphorylated
, an epigenetic way of gene expression regulation, is achieved besides post translational modification of histone proteins by the addition of methyl groups to the DNA, at CpG sites, to convert cytosine to 5-methylcytosine. This is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT).
Biomol offers antibodies to DNA Methyltransferase and chromatin remodeling proteins.
Chromatin Remodelling Protein Antibodies
produces antibodies against chromatin remodelling proteins:
- SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Complex These multi-protein complexes are proposed to function as ATP-driven motors that translocate along DNA and destabilize nucleosomal structures to facilitate transcription factor binding.
- Antibodies for the Study of DNA Methylation DNA methylation plays an important role in chromatin organization and gene expression.
- Antibodies to Jumonji Proteins The jumonji (jmj) domain containing gene family of proteins has been discovered to play a role in chromatin regulation by influencing transcriptional activation, suppression, and demethylation.
Biomol offers several antibodies to DNA methyltransferases:
See also: IMGENEX HDAC and Dnmt Antibodies
Histone Methylation: HMT-Demethylase Pairs
HDACs and Sirtuins: Assay kits, enzymes, and substrates from BPS Bioscience.
HDAC Assay Kits
Methyltransferases for epigenetic and other research from BPS Bioscience: assay kits, enzymes, and substrates.
Methyltransferase Assay Kits
Demethylases for epigenetic and other research from BPS Bioscience: assay kits, enzymes, and substrates.
Demethylase Assay Kits
Poly ADP Ribose Polymerases (PARP)
Poly ADP Ribose Polymerases (PARP) for DNA repair, apoptosis and other research from BPS Bioscience: assay kits, enzymes, and substrates.
Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Assay Kits
Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Enzymes
Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) Substrates
Biomol offers also antibodies for the detection of poly ADP ribose polymerases (PARP)