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Cyclin-dependent Kinases, Cyclins and the Cell Cycle


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Biomol offers a comprehensive selection of antibodies for detection of cell cycle regulating proteins.

CDKs with their Regulator Protein, Cyclin or Other.

A cyclin-CDK complex can be regulated by several kinases and phosphatases, including Wee, and CDK-activating kinase (CAK), and Cdc25.

Cyclin Y is a recently identified member of the cyclin family of proteins which function as regulators of cyclin dependent kinases. It was identified as a protein that interacts with PFTK1, a factor that shares limited homology to CDKs, but functions as a CDK by regulating cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. The binding of cyclin Y to PFTK1 enhances PFTK1 kinase activity and influences its intracellular location. Cyclin Y is also known as cyclin fold protein 1, cyclin box protein 1, CCNY, CBCP1, and CFP1.


Cyclin and CDK used in Cell Cycle

Phase Cyclin Cdk
G1 D, E CDK4, CDK2, CDK6
S A, E CDK2
G2 A CDK2
M B CDK1

More Related Proteins


ORC (Origin Recognition Complex)
MCM (Mini-Chromosome Maintenance complex)
cdc6
cdc7
DBF4
E2F
DP1
Rb
INK4a
INK4b
INK4c
INK4d
Kip1
Kip2
Cip1
PCNA
GADD45
14-3-3 sigma
cdc25A
Chk1
Chk2
p53
DNA-PK
p300
Mdm2
ATM
ATR

Beyond Cell Cycle


Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and their associated cyclin partners have long been recognized as complexes that play an integral role in the progression of the cell cycle. Recently, the well established role of the CDK/cyclin complexes has been broadened, and current studies show that an atypical group of CDK/cyclin complexes are also directly involved in activities such as transcription, translation, and mRNA processing. The transcriptional regulating cyclins include cyclin C, H, K, L1, L2, T1, and T2 which associate with CDK8, -7, -9, and -11; the complexes formed by these factors appear to be involved in distinct aspects of transcription and splicing:
  • Cyclin C associates with CDK8. CDK8/cyclin C has been identified as a component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator complex that provides a scaffold to link gene-specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II and the general transcription machinery.
  • Cyclin H forms a complex with CDK7and MAT1. The CDK7/cylin H/MAT1 complex has been identified as a component of the TFIIH multi-subuint general transcription factor. In this transcription complex, CDK7 is responsible for the phosphorylation of several components of the transcriptional machinery.
  • Cyclin L1 and L2 associate with CDK11. CDK/cyclin L complexes have been implicated to play a role in pre-mRNA splicing.
  • Cyclins T1, T2a, T2b and K form a complex with CDK9. CDK9 has been identified as a subunit of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. pTEFb is responsible for phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II to facilitate elongation.
The discovery of novel roles for CDK/cyclin complexes provides an avenue to connect the processes of cell cycle progression, transcription, and RNA splicing into a common regulatory network and raises many questions concerning how these complexes achieve cross-talk to promote the complex coordination of cell cycle progression and gene expression (reviewed in Loyer, Trembley, Katona, Kidd, & Lahti, 2005).

Reference List


Loyer, P., Trembley, J. H., Katona, R., Kidd, V. J., & Lahti, J. M. (2005). Role of CDK/cyclin complexes in transcription and RNA splicing. Cell Signal., 17, 1033-1051.

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