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Histone Methylation: HMT-Demethylase Pairs

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Histone methylation is performed by histone methyltransferases (HMT) and reversed by demethylases.
In the following table, histone methyl transferases and demethylases are listed by histone modification site. The histone modification entries are linked to antibodies for detection of that site of methylation, the enzymes names are linked to several kind of products (antibodies, enzymes and assay kits):
Histone Modification HMT Demethylase
H3K4 MLL, SET7/9, SMYD3

LSD1, JARID1A, JARID1B, JARID1C, JARID1D, JHDM1B

H3K9 SUV39H1,2, G9a, EHMT1 LSD1, JMJD2A, JMJD2B, JMJD2C, JMJD2D, JMJD2E
H3K27 EZH1, EZH2 UTX, JMJD3
H3K36 NSD1, SET2, SMYD2, SMYD3 JMJD2A, JMJD2B, JMJD2C, JMJD2D, JMJD2E, JHDM1A, JHDM1B
H3K79 Dot1L ?
H3R PRMT1, PRMT3, PRMT5, PRMT6, PRMT7, CARM/PRMT4 PAD1, PAD2, PAD3, PAD4, JMJD6
H4K20 SET8, SUV39H1,2 PHF8

Histone methylation is in general associated with transcriptional repression, however, methylation of some lysine and arginine residues of histones results in transcriptional activation.

Two histone modifications are particularly associated with active transcription:
  1. Trimethylation of H3 lysine 4 (H3K4Me3) at the promotor of active genes
  2. Trimethylation of H3 lysine 36 (H3K36Me3) in the body of active genes

Three histone modifications are particularly associated with repressed genes:
  1. Trimethylation of H3 lysine 27 (H3K27Me3)
  2. Di and tri-methylation of H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Me2/3)
  3. Trimethylation of H4 lysine 20 (H4K20Me3)
In embryonic stem cels promorors are found that contain activating and repressing methylations (H3K4Me3 and H3K27Me3). After differentiation of these cells they are resolved to either active or repressive states depending on the chosen lineage.

This information was compiled by best of our knowledge. Have you found an error? Do you want to suggest an improvement? Please tell us about it.

References


The Uniprot Consortium
Wikipedia
Methylation and Demethylation Assay Kits by BPS

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