Acute Phase Response
Find here a list of antibodies against proteins involved in acute phase reaction.
These are proteins involved in acute phase, a response of the vertebrate body to insults, infections, immunological reactions or inflammatory processes; characterised by redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor) and sometimes loss of function. Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. In response to injury, local inflammatory cells (neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages) secrete a number of cytokines into the bloodstream, most notable of which are the interleukins IL-1
, and TNF-α
. The liver responds by producing a large number of acute-phase reactants. At the same time, the production of a number of other proteins is reduced; these are, therefore, referred to as "negative" acute-phase reactants.
Antibodies to Proteins involved in Acute Phase Response
- ORM1, Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (AGP 1) (Orosomucoid-1) (OMD 1)
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in the body. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
- ORM2, Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2 (AGP 2) (Orosomucoid-2) (OMD 2)
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
- SERPINA1, Alpha-1-antitrypsin (Alpha-1 protease inhibitor) (Alpha-1-antiproteinase) (Serpin A1) [Cleaved into: Short peptide from AAT (SPAAT)]
Inhibitor of serine proteases. Its primary target is elastase, but it also has a moderate affinity for plasmin and thrombin. Irreversibly inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activator. The aberrant form inhibits insulin-induced NO synthesis in platelets, decreases coagulation time and has proteolytic activity against insulin and plasmin. Short peptide from AAT (SPAAT) is a reversible chymotrypsin inhibitor. It also inhibits elastase, but not trypsin. Its major physiological function is the protection of the lower respiratory tract against proteolytic destruction by human leukocyte elastase (HLE).
- SERPINF2, Alpha-2-antiplasmin (Alpha-2-AP) (Alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor) (Alpha-2-PI) (Serpin F2)
The major targets of this inhibitor are plasmin and trypsin, but it also inactivates chymotrypsin.
- SERPINA3, Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) (Cell growth-inhibiting gene 24/25 protein) (Serpin A3) [Cleaved into: Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin His-Pro-less]
Although its physiological function is unclear, it can inhibit neutrophil cathepsin G and mast cell chymase, both of which can convert angiotensin-1 to the active angiotensin-2
- CD163, Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 (Hemoglobin scavenger receptor) (CD antigen CD163) [Cleaved into: Soluble CD163 (sCD163)]
Acute phase-regulated receptor involved in clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. May play a role in the uptake and recycling of iron, via endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin and subsequent breakdown of heme. Binds hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes in a calcium-dependent and pH-dependent manner. Exhibits a higher affinity for complexes of hemoglobin and multimeric haptoglobin of HP*1F phenotype than for complexes of hemoglobin and dimeric haptoglobin of HP*1S phenotype. Induces a cascade of intracellular signals that involves tyrosine kinase-dependent calcium mobilization, inositol triphosphate production and secretion of IL6 and CSF1. Isoform 3 exhibits the higher capacity for ligand endocytosis and the more pronounced surface expression when expressed in cells. After shedding, the soluble form (sCD163) may play an anti-inflammatory role, and may be a valuable diagnostic parameter for monitoring macrophage activation in inflammatory conditions.
- CRP, C-reactive protein [Cleaved into: C-reactive protein(1-205)]
Displays several functions associated with host defense: it promotes agglutination, bacterial capsular swelling, phagocytosis and complement fixation through its calcium-dependent binding to phosphorylcholine. Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells.
- CP, Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe2+ to Fe3+ without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iron transport across the cell membrane. Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
- F8, Coagulation factor VIII (Antihemophilic factor) (AHF) (Procoagulant component) [Cleaved into: Factor VIIIa heavy chain, 200 kDa isoform; Factor VIIIa heavy chain, 92 kDa isoform; Factor VIII B chain; Factor VIIIa light chain]
Factor VIII, along with calcium and phospholipid, acts as a cofactor for factor IXa when it converts factor X to the activated form, factor Xa.
- FN1, Fibronectin (FN) (Cold-insoluble globulin) (CIG) [Cleaved into: Anastellin; Ugl-Y1; Ugl-Y2; Ugl-Y3]
Fibronectins bind cell surfaces and various compounds including collagen, fibrin, heparin, DNA, and actin. Fibronectins are involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, opsonization, wound healing, and maintenance of cell shape. Anastellin binds fibronectin and induces fibril formation. This fibronectin polymer, named superfibronectin, exhibits enhanced adhesive properties. Both anastellin and superfibronectin inhibit tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Anastellin activates p38 MAPK and inhibits lysophospholipid signaling.
- HP, Haptoglobin
Haptoglobin combines with free plasma hemoglobin, preventing loss of iron through the kidneys and protecting the kidneys from damage by hemoglobin, while making the hemoglobin accessible to degradative enzymes.
- IL6, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (B-cell stimulatory factor 2) (BSF-2) (CTL differentiation factor) (CDF) (Hybridoma growth factor) (Interferon beta-2) (IFN-beta-2)
Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions. It is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig-secreting cells Involved in lymphocyte and monocyte differentiation. It induces myeloma and plasmacytoma growth and induces nerve cells differentiation Acts on B-cells, T-cells, hepatocytes, hematopoeitic progenitor cells and cells of the CNS. Also acts as a myokine. It is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction and acts to increase the breakdown of fats and to improve insulin resistance.
- REG3A, Regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (REG-3-alpha) (Human proislet peptide) (Pancreatitis-associated protein 1) (Regenerating islet-derived protein III-alpha) (Reg III-alpha)
Might be a stress protein involved in the control of bacterial proliferation. Constitutively expressed in intestine. Low expression is found in healthy pancreas. Overexpressed during the acute phase of pancreatitis and in some patients with chronic pancreatitis.
- SAA4, Serum amyloid A-4 protein (Constitutively expressed serum amyloid A protein) (C-SAA)
Major acute phase reactant. Apolipoprotein of the HDL complex. Expressed by the liver, secreted in plasma.
- SAA1;, Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) [Cleaved into: Amyloid protein A (Amyloid fibril protein AA); Serum amyloid protein A(2-104); Serum amyloid protein A(3-104); Serum amyloid protein A(2-103); Serum amyloid protein A(2-102); Serum amyloid protein A(4-101)]
Major acute phase reactant. Apolipoprotein of the HDL complex. Expressed by the liver upon cytokine stimulation, secreted in plasma.
- F2, Prothrombin (EC 22.214.171.124) (Coagulation factor II) [Cleaved into: Activation peptide fragment 1; Activation peptide fragment 2; Thrombin light chain; Thrombin heavy chain]
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
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