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Hersteller INFOS

New EIA Kits

Info

Biomol extends its immunoassay kit product line with Cayman Chemicals.

Overview of Analytes:

AcSDKP, Adiponectin, Angiotensin II, ApoAI, ASP, Atriopeptin, Bimatoprost, CRP, gamma-CEHC, CGRP, Enterolactone, Fluprostenol, His-Express Detection, Interleukin-1 alpha, iPF2 alpha -VI, Latanoprost, Leukotriene & Co, 5-Methyl-2-deoxy Cytidine, Prostaglandin & Co, Resistin, 11-keto Testosterone, Vitellogenin, Practice EIA Kit, Biomarker

[Here you find the latest additions to above list]: 8-Isoprostane, STAT-8-Isoprostane, 15(S)-HETE, Cysteinyl Leukotriene, Leukotriene B4, cPLA2 Assay, sPLA2 (human Type IIA), sPLA2 Assay, Prostaglandin D2, Prostaglandin E2, 11beta-Prostaglandin F2alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha, 6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha, Prostaglandin F2alpha, 11-dehydro Thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor Thromboxane B2, Thromboxane B2 and Aldosterone, Arginine Vasopressin, Corticosterone,Cortisol,Cyclic AMP,Cyclic GMP,Cysteinyl Leukotriene,DNA Methylation, Endothelin,Estradiol, Estriol, FABP4 (human), gamma-CEHC, GFAP (human), Ghrelin, Growth Hormone (rat), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine, His-Express Detection, Histamine, Human Serum Albumin, Insulin (rat), Interleukin-1beta (human), Interleukin-2 (human), Interleukin-4 (human), Interleukin-6 (human), 8-Isoprostane, Leptin, Leptin Receptor (human), Myeloperoxidase (human), oxLDL-beta2GPI (human), Prion Protein, Progesterone, Prolactin (rat), 6-keto Prostaglandin F1alpha, Resistin, Substance P, Testosterone, tetranor-PGDM, TNF-alpha (human).


AcSDKP EIA Kit


N-Acetyl Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) is a tetrapeptide growth regulatory hormone which inhibits the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. The dipeptidase Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) actively metabolizes circulating AcSDKP, giving it a brief plasma half life of 4 to 5 minutes. ACE inhibition is a major therapeutic end point in the treatment of hypertension management. A further consequence of ACE inhibition is the accumulation of AcSDKP in the plasma and the urine. This accumulation may have physiological effects, which are manifested as the anemia of chronic ACE inhibitor toxicity. More commonly, plasma and urine AcSDKP levels can be used as a biomarker of ACE inhibition and an index of patient compliance with therapy. Measurement of AcSDKP in human urine or plasma can be readily accomplished by enzyme immunoassay.

Adiponectin (human) EIA Kit


Adiponectin, also known as Acpr30 and GPB-28, is a physiologically active protein which is specifically and highly expressed from adipose cells. Adipose tissue-expressed levels of adiponectin are inversely related to the degree of obesity and are correlated with insulin resistant states such as those found in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. This Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is based on the competition between free adiponectin and coated adiponectin in the presence of a fixed quantity of HRP-labeled adiponectin antibody. The assay exhibits a detection limit of 0.7 µg/ml.
More Adiponectin EIA Kits

Angiotensin II EIA Kit


Angiotensin II is a primary reactive vasoconstrictor, the main stimulus for aldosterone release, and one of the causative factors of chronic hypertension. The active angiotensin II octapeptide is released via a tightly controlled series of prohormones and proteases as diagrammed below. Normal human plasma angiotensin II levels are from 10-30 pg/ml when measured at rest in the supine position, they increase on standing, exercise, dehydration, or sodium depletion. The unique, patented Immobilized Antigen technology of this angiotensin II immunometric assay allows reliable detection of 1-2 pg/ml, or as little as 10% of the normal human plasma concentration.

ApoAI (human) EIA Kit


Apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) is a major protein component of HDL. Clinical studies have demonstrated that lower levels of ApoAI are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease. Overexpression of ApoAI raises HDL cholesterol levels and inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis in mice. For this reason, upregulation of ApoAI expression is considered to be one of the most promising approaches to the development of new therapies for atherosclerosis targeting HDL. This ApoAI (human) EIA Kit is an immunometric assay which can be used to accurately detect and quantify ApoAI in plasma and serum without prior sample purification. The standard curve spans the range of 0-20 ng/ml with a limit of detection of approximately 0.3 ng/ml.

ASP EIA Kit


Domoic acid (DA) and DA derivatives are water-soluble neurotoxins produced by a number of marine algae, in particular those of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia may lead to the accumulation of DA in shellfish filter feeders and other marine species. Ingestion of DA-contaminated shellfish causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and has been linked to the death of animal and human consumers in severe cases. The European Commission Directive 2002/226/EC has implemented a maximum permitted level (MPL) of 20 mg DA/kg shellfish flesh intended for human consumption, and this level has been adopted by regulatory authorities in most other countries. The ASP ELISA is specific for DA with no cross-reactivity to non-toxic, structural analogues like kainic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, formimino-L-glutamic acid, proline or .gamma.-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The assay is primarily intended for use in routine monitoring of DA levels in bivalve molluscs to comply with the regulatory MPL, but is also applicable for DA quantification in other marine matrices.

Atriopeptin (rat) EIA Kit


Atriopeptin is a 28 amino acid peptide synthesized primarily in cardiac atria. This peptide hormone acts in opposition to angiotensin II in regulating renal, hemodynamic, and endocrine function. Atriopeptin is released in response to the increased pressure and mechanical stretch of the right atrium due to blood volume overload. Atriopeptin then acts at the nephron to increase salt and water excretion, lowering blood volume and blood pressure. Elevated plasma atriopeptin levels may be produced in experimental models by volume expansion, high salt diets, and in response to vasoconstrictors. Increased plasma concentrations have also been reported in various pathological conditions such as renal disease, congestive heart failure, and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.

Bimatoprost EIA Kit


Bimatoprost (free acid) (17-phenyl trinor PGF2.alpha.) is a metabolically stable analog of PGF2.alpha. and is a potent agonist for the FP receptor. It binds to the FP receptor on ovine luteal cells with a relative potency of 756% compared to that of PGF2.alpha.. At the rat recombinant FP receptor expressed in CHO cells, 17-phenyl trinor PGF2.alpha. inhibits PGF2.alpha. binding with a Ki value of 1.1 nM. In human and animal models of glaucoma, FP receptor agonist activity corresponds very closely with intraocular hypotensive activity. 17-phenyl trinor PGF2.alpha. ethyl amide is an F-series prostaglandin analog which has been approved for use as an ocular hypotensive drug, sold under the Allergan trade name Bimatoprost. Whether 17-phenyl trinor PGF2.alpha. ethyl amide is a prodrug analogous to prostaglandin ester prodrugs such as latanoprost is currently controversial. There is some evidence that unmetabolized Bimatoprost is a weak FP receptor agonist. Bimatoprost is converted by an amidase enzymatic activity in the bovine and human cornea to yield the corresponding free acid, with a conversion rate of about 40 µg/g corneal tissue/24 hours. This 17-phenyl trinor PGF2.alpha. EIA is a sensitive detection method for measuring both the free acid and ethyl amide forms of 17-phenyl trinor PGF2.alpha.. The assay is most appropriate for use when only one of the two forms is present. Samples containing mixtures of both the ethyl amide and free acid should be purified and the two compounds separated prior to EIA analysis.

C-Reactive Protein (human) EIA Kit


C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a 224 amino acid protein that is synthesized primarily by hepatocytes, and to a lesser extent adipocytes. CRP plasma levels increase ~1,000-fold in response to acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, making it a useful gauge of inflammation in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions. Normal levels of serum CRP (0.64 µg/ml) do not differ between healthy adult men and women, but tend to increase slightly with age. High plasma CRP concentrations (>3 µg/ml) are associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis. CRP has been implicated as a contributor to atherogenesis by modulating endothelial function, stimulating coagulation, inducing the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, mediating uptake of LDL into macrophages, and destabilizing plaques. In addition, CRP can bind in a calcium-dependent manner to phosphocholine on microbes, act as a ligand for specific receptors on phagocytic leukocytes, mediate activation of monocytes and macrophages via IL-6, TNF-.alpha. and other cytokines, and assist in the complement pathway. This CRP (human) EIA Kit is an immunometric assay which can be used to measure CRP in plasma without prior sample purification. The standard curve spans the range of 0-3,000 pg/ml with a limit of detection of approximately 50 pg/ml.

gamma-CEHC EIA Kit


Tocopherols and tocotrienols are forms of vitamin E that have antioxidative properties. .gamma.-Tocopherol is the most abundant form of vitamin E in the diet. Its metabolite, .gamma.-CEHC (2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(.beta.-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman), is produced in the liver by the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes and excreted in urine at levels that exceed all other tocopherol metabolites. In plasma, .gamma.-tocopherol has the ability to trap nitric oxide radicals, and both .gamma.-tocopherol and .gamma.-CEHC inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Thus, the concentration of .gamma.-tocopherol in plasma could be indicative of events related to cardiovascular disease and cancer. This .gamma.-CEHC EIA Kit (plasma and serum) is a competitive assay that can be used for efficient quantification of .gamma.-CEHC in plasma and other sample matrices. The EIA typically displays an IC50 (50% B/B0) of approximately 900 pg/ml and a detection limit (80% B/B0) of approximately 150 pg/ml.

CGRP (human) EIA Kit


CGRP is a 37 amino acid peptide synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous system from a calcitonin/CGRP gene complex. Two isoforms have been described which differ by three amino acids and display similar biological activities: CGRP-.alpha., which is produced by alternative splicing of a calcitonin gene transcript, and CGRP-.beta., the product of a separate gene. In the CNS, CGRP acts as a neurotransmitter that is released from a subset of small sensory neurons that transmit pain information. In the circulation, CGRP is one of the most potent vasodilators known and may function as a regulator of blood flow. When administered systemically, CGRP causes hypotension in several species, including humans. Intradermal administration of CGRP at femtomole doses produces increased blood flow and persistent reddening. This EIA is based on a double-antibody sandwich technique that permits measurement of CGRP within the range of 0-1,000 pg/ml, with a detection limit of <5 pg/ml. This assay provides a method for the sensitive, specific analysis of CGRP in a variety of samples including plasma, serum, nervous tissue, CSF, and culture media.

CGRP (rat) EIA Kit


CGRP is a 37 amino acid peptide synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous system from a calcitonin/CGRP gene complex. Two isoforms have been described which differ by three amino acids and display similar biological activities: CGRP-.alpha., which is produced by alternative splicing of a calcitonin gene transcript, and CGRP-.beta., the product of a separate gene. In the CNS, CGRP acts as a neurotransmitter that is released from a subset of small sensory neurons that transmit pain information. In the circulation, CGRP is one of the most potent vasodilators know and may function as a regulator of blood flow. When administered systemically, CGRP causes hypotension in several species, including humans. Intradermal administration of CGRP at femtomole doses produces increased blood flow and persistent reddening. This EIA is based on a double-antibody sandwich technique that permits measurement of CGRP within the range of 0-500 pg/ml, with a detection limit of <1 pg/ml. This assay provides a method for the sensitive, specific analysis of CGRP in a variety of samples including plasma, serum, nervous tissue, CSF, and culture media.

Enterolactone EIA Kit


Enterolactone is a mammalian lignan with an estrogen-like diphenolic structure. It is produced by intestinal bacteria from two plant precursors (matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol) obtained in the diet. Enterolactone and other lignans and phytoestrogens have been associated with a reduced risk of acute coronary events, hormone-dependent cancers, and possibly osteoporosis. Several studies have suggested that serum enterolactone may serve as a biomarker of a healthy, high-fiber diet. This Enterolactone EIA kit is a competitive assay that utilizes a standard curve ranging from 15.6-2,000 pg/ml. The assay exhibits a limit of quantification (defined as 80% B/B0) of 70 pg/ml and an IC50 (50% B/B0) of 240 pg/ml.

Fluprostenol EIA Kit


(+)-Fluprostenol is a metabolically stable analog of PGF2.alpha. with potent FP receptor agonist activity. The isopropyl ester of (+)-fluprostenol has recently been approved for use as an ocular hypotensive drug for the treatment of glaucoma and is sold under the Alcon trade name Travoprost. Acting as a prodrug, (+)-Fluprostenol isopropyl ester is converted by esterase activity in the cornea to yield the corresponding free acid. (+)-Fluprostenol is also used in the veterinary field for the induction of estrus in livestock. The (+)-Fluprostenol EIA is a sensitive detection method for measuring the free acid form of (+)-fluprostenol. The assay also detects the isopropyl ester form of (+)-fluprostenol, but with less sensitivity. Samples containing a mixture of the isopropyl ester and free acid should be purified and the compounds separated prior to analysis. The assay has been validated for use in aqueous humor samples.

His-Express EIA Kit

Recombinant proteins are routinely labeled with affinity tags, such as hexahistidine (6X-His), GST and FLAG, to facilitate both their detection and purification. 6X-His tags are often the tag of choice due to their small size, less potential to interfere in protein folding, weak immunogenicity, and high affinity for Ni2. Cell lysates and samples at different stages of purification are generally analyzed by SDS-PAGE, a process which can add several days to the purification and analysis protocol. A semi-quantitative screening assay provides the ability to rapidly assess the levels His-tagged proteins at each stage of the expression and purification process. This permits the user to quickly monitor expression efforts, as well as follow protein loss or enrichment at each purification step. Caymans His-Express Detection EIA Kit is competitive assay designed for the rapid, semi-quantitative screening of cell lysates and affinity column fractions for His-tagged proteins. It is intended to serve as a substitute for SDS-PAGE, thereby expediting the screening of affinity column fractions.

Interleukin-1 alpha (human) EIA Kit


Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a name for a family of proteins which includes IL-alpha, IL-1beta, ILra (interleukin receptor antagonist) and IL-18. IL-1alpha is synthesized as a 33 kDa (271 amino acid) pro-cytokine that is enzymatically cleaved by calpain into the active 159 amino acid, 17 kDa peptide. IL-1alpha is produced by many cells types including macrophages, monocytes, astrocytes, keratinocytes, adipocytes, T-cells, and eosinophils. Although IL-1alpha and IL-1beta exhibit only 26% amino acid identity, they bind to the same cell-surface receptors, IL-1 RI and IL-1 RII, present on a variety of cell types involved in immune or inflammatory responses. Normal production of IL-1 is critical for mediating host responses to infection and injury. Disease states in which IL-1 actively participates include inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and shock, as well as atherosclerosis, allergic disease, and some types of cancer. This IL-1alpha (human) EIA Kit is an immunometric (i.e., sandwich) EIA that permits IL-1alpha measurements within the range of 0-250 pg/ml, typically with a limit of detection of <31.3 pg/ml.

iPF2 alpha -VI EIA Kit


The isoprostanes are a family of eicosanoids of non-enzymatic origin produced by the random oxidation of tissue phospholipids by oxygen radicals. Isoprostanes appear as artifacts in tissue and plasma samples which have undergone oxidative degradation during prolonged or improper storage. They also appear in the plasma and urine under normal conditions and are elevated by the ingestion of alcohol, carbon tetrachloride and cigarette smoke. There are four main families or classes of isoprostanes (Classes III, IV, V, and VI). It is ironic that the best studied class, the iPF2.alpha.-III series, is also the least abundant. This assay is the first simple, reliable EIA method for the measurement of the more prominent iPF2.alpha.-VI isoprostane. Normal urinary levels of iPF2.alpha.-VI are 500-700 pg/mg creatinine, whereas the III series compound 8-isoprostane (iPF2.alpha.-III) is present at about 150 pg/mg creatinine. This iPF2.alpha.-VI EIA is a competitive assay that can be used for the quantification of iPF2.alpha.-VI from plasma, urine, cultured cells, and tissues.

Latanoprost EIA Kit


Latanoprost is 13,14-dihydro-17-phenyl-18,19,20-trinor prostaglandin F2.alpha. isopropyl ester (13,14-dihydro-17-phenyl-18,19,20-trinor PGF2.alpha. isopropyl ester), an F-series prostaglandin analog which has been approved for use as an ocular hypotensive drug. Prostaglandin esters and other similar derivatives act as prodrugs which are converted to the active free acid form by an esterase/amidase activity in ocular tissues. The free acid form of Latanoprost (Latanoprost free acid (Lat-FA), or PhXA 85) is 200 times more potent than the isopropyl ester as an FP receptor ligand tested using the recombinant human FP receptor. Although the exact mechanism of the intraocular hypotensive effect of prostaglandins is unknown, it correlates very closely with the FP receptor ligand binding affinity of FP receptor agonists. This Latanoprost EIA is a sensitive detection method for measuring the free acid form of Latanoprost. It also detects the isopropyl ester form of Latanoprost, but with less sensitivity. The assay is most appropriate for use when only one of the two forms is present. Samples containing mixtures of both the isopropyl ester and free acid should be purified and the two compounds separated prior to EIA analysis.

Leukotriene C4 EIA Kit


The leukotrienes (LTs) were discovered in 1979 as a group of acute inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid in leukocytes. Although the majority of leukotrienes are formed through the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway, a second family of leukotrienes can be formed through an alternate pathway involving the dual actions of 15- and 12-LOs. The resulting epoxytriene, 14,15-LTA4, can be converted to 14,15-LTC4, as demonstrated in sheep uterus and RBL-1 cells. Although many of the physiological actions of 14,15-LTC4 remain to be elucidated, it has been shown to have weak contractile activity on both guinea pig ileum and pulmonary parenchyma.

14,15-Leukotriene C4 EIA Kit


The leukotrienes (LTs) were discovered in 1979 as a group of acute inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid in leukocytes. Although the majority of leukotrienes are formed through the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway, a second family of leukotrienes can be formed through an alternate pathway involving the dual actions of 15- and 12-LOs. The resulting epoxytriene, 14,15-LTA4, can be converted to 14,15-LTC4, as demonstrated in sheep uterus and RBL-1 cells. Although many of the physiological actions of 14,15-LTC4 remain to be elucidated, it has been shown to have weak contractile activity on both guinea pig ileum and pulmonary parenchyma.

Leukotriene E4 EIA Kit


Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is a product of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway in activated mast cells, eosinophils, and monocytes. LTA4, the primary 5-LO metabolite, is converted to LTC4 and sequentially to LTD4 and LTE4 in the host cell, or by transcellular metabolism in erythrocytes, platelets, or neutrophils. This metabolism is rapid and complete, in that plasma levels of LTC4 are virtually undetectable. Exogenously administered LTC4 is recovered in the urine as LTE4 (5-13%) and two prominent oxidized metabolites resulting from several cycles of .beta.-oxidation. The plasma half-life of is about 7 minutes. Plasma LTE4 levels are likewise <2 pg/ml as a consequence of the low rate of production and rapid elimination. Normal human urine contains low but detectable amounts of LTE4, ranging from 10-60 pg/ml. Asthmatic patients in an acute episode of bronchoconstriction may have elevations of urinary LTE4 to several hundred pg/ml, but their baseline LTE4 levels are not consistently abnormal. Methods for the rapid isolation and detection of LTE4 from human urine have been developed.

5-Methyl-2-deoxy Cytidine EIA Kit


DNA methylation is an important epigenetic process regulating gene expression. Methylation occurs on carbon 5 of 2-deoxy cytidine yielding the modified base 5-methyl-2-deoxy cytidine. The methylation pattern of cells is tightly regulated during development with the methylation profile being transmitted from parent to daughter cells during cell division. Methylation results in long-term silencing of genes, while unmethylated regions of DNA can be actively transcribed. One region of the genome of particular interest in regard to methylation is CpG islands. CpG islands are regions approximately 200 bp to several thousand bp in length which often span the promoter and first few exons of many housekeeping and tumor suppressor genes. These regions remain essentially unmethylated throughout development. As the name implies, the CpG dinucleotide is overrepresented in CpG islands, with the frequency being approximately five times greater in CpG islands than in the remainder of the genome. It is well established that alterations in DNA methylation are a common feature of cancer. In addition to global genomic hypomethylation, there are also discrete areas of dense hypermethylation particularly in the normally unmethylated CpG islands. Because many tumor suppressor genes contain CpG islands, these genes are among those silenced by hypermethylation. The first report of methylation of a tumor suppressor CpG island was Retinoblastoma (Rb) which was discovered in 1989. Interestingly, the pattern and level of gene hypermethylation for a given cancer is specific to that malignancy, with cancer of the GI tract tending to show a greater level of hypermethylation than do other cancers. In the digestive tract, methylation of genes, including the estrogen receptor, occurs as a normal part of the aging process. During carcinogenesis, this age-related methylation may progress to hypermethylation. Global changes in methylation can be quantified by measuring plasma or urinary levels of 5-methyl-2-deoxy cytidine. These changes in methylation can provide valuable information about cancer status of an individual. For example, patients with leukemia excrete significantly elevated levels of 5-methyl-2-deoxy cytidine compared to healthy individuals. Global methylation within tissues can be measured in a similar manner, allowing study of tissue-specific changes that occur as a result of differentiation, aging, or carcinogenesis. DNA methylation is regulated by a family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), with DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b all implicated in carcinogenesis. Three cytosine nucleoside analogs (azacitidine, decitabine, and zebularine) which incorporate into DNA during synthesis are being actively investigated as anti-cancer drugs. DNMTs bind irreversibly to these cytidine analogs, resulting in suppression of methylation and the possibility that genes which had been inappropriately methylated may resume their normal function. This 5-methyl-2-deoxy Cytidine EIA is a competitive assay that can be used for the quantification of 5-methyl-2-deoxy cytidine in urine, culture supernatants, plasma, and other sample matrices. The EIA typically displays IC50 (50% B/B0) and IC80 (80% B/B0) values of approximately 12 and 3 ng/ml, respectively.

Prostaglandin D Synthase (lipocalin-type, human) EIA Kit


Prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2 to produce PGD2, a potent lipid mediator involved in sleep regulation, nociception, platelet aggregation, and allergic and inflammatory responses. Lipocalin-type PGDS (a.k.a. .beta.-trace) is a homodimer with each subunit ranging in size from 20-31 kDa, depending on the extent of glycosylation. L-PGDS has two functions: it catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2 and acts as a carrier protein for lipid-like molecules (i.e., retinoids and thyroid hormones). L-PGDS is present in a variety of body fluids including cerebrospinal fluid, seminal fluid, and plasma. This L-PGDS (human) EIA is an immunometric (i.e., sandwich) EIA with a standard curve ranging from 0-100 ng/ml and a limit of detection of 6 ng/ml. Inter- and intra-assay CVs of less than 15% may be achieved at most concentrations. This assay has been validated using cerebrospinal fluid which contains approximately 12-30 µg/ml of L-PGDS.

Prostaglandin D2 EIA Kit


The direct measurement of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in an EIA format is now possible with the introduction of this PGD2 EIA Kit. The antibody utilized in this assay was generated in a unique way allowing the direct measure of PGD2 without prior conversion to the methoximine compound, as required in our PGD2-MOX and PGD2-MOX Express EIA Kits (Catalog Nos. 512011 and 500151). The assay has been validated specifically for PGD2 measurements from tissue culture supernatants or purified enzyme preparations.

Prostaglandin D2-MOX EIA Kit


Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is biosynthesized in the brain by a lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase where it acts in the CNS to promote sleep induction and lowering of body temperature. PGD2 is also the major eicosanoid product of mast cells and is synthesized in large quantities by a hematopoetic-type PGD synthase during allergic and asthmatic anaphylaxis. Measurement of the parent eicosanoid PGD2 is appropriate in the supernatants of cell cultures, where PGD2 levels may reach several ng/ml, and in CSF, where concentrations of several hundred pg/ml have been measured. This PGD2-MOX Express EIA is a competitive assay that permits the rapid measurement of PGD2 from biological samples, requiring only 1 hour incubation and development times for each step. The methodology for the assay is the same as that employed in the widely utilized PGD2-MOX EIA (Catalog No. Cay512011). While Catalog No. Cay512011 offers superior sensitivity (IC50 ~20 pg/ml), the new PGD2-MOX Express EIA offers the convenience of a fast assay while still achieving an IC50 of 75 pg/ml and a detection limit (80% B/B0) of approximately 16 pg/ml.

Prostaglandin E Metabolite EIA Kit


Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is produced by a variety of cell types which, in general, do not contain the enzymes required for metabolism of PGE2. Thus, cultured endothelial cells or osteoblasts will release PGE2 into the culture medium, where it will accumulate without appreciable metabolism. The direct assay of PGE2 from the medium is a good way to measure PGE2 production from these cells. PGE2 is rapidly converted in vivo to its 13,14-dihydro-15-keto metabolite, with more than 90% of circulating PGE2 cleared by a single passage through the lungs. Unfortunately, this metabolite is not chemically stable and undergoes a variable amount of degradation to PGA products. For this reason, blood, urine, or other samples from whole animals or humans often contain very little intact PGE2, and measurement of the metabolites is necessary to provide a reliable estimate of actual PGE2 production. This PGE Metabolite assay was developed as a method of converting 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGA2 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGE2 to a single, stable derivative that could be easily quantified by EIA. This assay is therefore the method of choice if the samples in question have undergone extensive metabolism prior to collection.

13,14-dihydro-15-keto Prostaglandin F2 alpha EIA Kit


Prostaglandin F2.alpha. (PGF2.alpha.) is one of the five primary prostaglandins derived enzymatically directly from the endoperoxide PGH2. PGF2.alpha. was initially discovered in seminal fluid, and to date the majority of the functional roles ascribed to it relate to fertility, pregnancy, and parturition. PGF2.alpha. is a potent luteolytic agent and is used to induce ovulation in domestic livestock. It is also a potent uterine stimulant, and is part of the cascade of myometrial stimulants which induce and sustain labor. PGF2.alpha. is rapidly metabolized to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2.alpha. in vivo, by the enzymes 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase and .DELTA.13-reductucase. Measurement of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2.alpha. in plasma can be used as a marker of the in vivo production of PGF2.alpha.. This 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2.alpha. Enzyme Immunoassay is a competitive assay that provides measurements of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2.alpha. within the range of 7.8-1,000 pg/ml, typically with a detection limit (80% B/B0) of approximately 10 pg/ml. Although the tracer and antiserum for this assay have been sold separately for many years, the reagents are now combined with an accurate standard and packaged together in a convenient assay kit. The assay has been validated for the measurement of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2.alpha. in plasma, a common matrix for measurement of this PGF2.alpha. metabolite.

ent-Prostaglandin F2 alpha EIA Kit


Prostaglandin F2.alpha. (PGF2.alpha.) is one of the five primary PGs derived from PGH2 via the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. It has many well known biological functions, including important roles in reproduction and smooth muscle contraction and is found at relatively high levels in urine. Yin et al. recently demonstrated that the majority of PGF2.alpha. in urine is formed non-enzymatically, as its formation cannot be blocked by inhibitors of COX activity. Careful analysis using chiral LC and GC-MS demonstrated that much of the urinary PGF2.alpha. is the enantiomer of PGF2.alpha., ent-PGF2.alpha.. In healthy volunteers, the ratio of ent-PGF2.alpha.:PGF2.alpha. in urine is approximately 1.5:1 (0.62 ng/mg creatinine of ent-PGF2.alpha.:0.39 ng/mg creatinine of PGF2.alpha.). Under conditions of oxidant stress such as that induced by either cigarette smoking or hypercholesterolemia, ent-PGF2.alpha. increases disproportionally in relation to PGF2.alpha.. This ent-PGF2.alpha. Assay is a competitive EIA that can be used for quantification of ent-PGF2.alpha. in urine and other sample matrices. The EIA typically displays an IC50 (50% B/B0) of approximately 100 pg/ml and a detection limit (80% B/B0) of approximately 20 pg/ml.

Prostaglandin Screening EIA Kit


This assay was developed for screening applications in which the relative amount of prostaglandin (PG) production for a large number of cell culture samples must be determined. The PGE2 assay (Catalog No. Cay514010) is unparalleled in sensitivity and specificity, but the steep standard curve can make screening many samples tedious. The specificity of the PGE2 assay also eliminates quantification of other PGs which may be produced by the cells. The antiserum used in this assay exhibits high cross reactivity for most PGs which will allow quantification of all the PGs in a given sample with a single assay. The broad standard curve minimizes the need for sample dilution. Because this assay will also recognize thromboxane B2 (TXB2), cell culture media must not contain fetal calf serum (FCS). The high concentration of TXB2 in serum (approximately 400 ng/ml) will completely displace the tracer, making PG measurement impossible.

Resistin (murine) EIA Kit


Resistin [a.k.a. FIZZ3 (found in inflammatory zone), ADSF (adipocyte-specific secretory factor)] is a 12.5 kDa amino acid protein that circulates as a dimer of two identical peptides linked by a disulfide bond. In mice, resistin is 114 amino acids in length and is predominantly expressed in white adipose tissue. Human resistin mRNA, sharing 64.4% homology with murine, is most highly expressed in bone marrow and lung tissue. In rodents resistin stimulates hepatic glucose output and decreases glucose tolerance. While it is not yet conclusive, some studies have shown that treatment with thiazolidinediones lowers resistin mRNA and protein levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which suggests that resistin may play a role in insulin resistance. Serum levels of the resistin protein in normal mice range from 20-30 ng/ml, while in ob/ob mice it is elevated to approximately 75 ng/ml. This Resistin Assay is an immunometric (i.e., sandwich) EIA that utilizes a standard curve ranging from 0-2,000 pg/ml, typically with a limit of detection of 60 pg/ml. Inter- and intra-assay CVs of less than 10% may be achieved at most concentrations.

11-keto Testosterone EIA Kit


While testosterone is the primary androgenic male steroid found in mammals, 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) is a second key androgenic steroid found in fish. It occurs in males together with testosterone in amounts which vary from less than 1 ng/ml to as much as 50-100 ng/ml, depending on the species and the stage of the reproductive cycle. In the sea bass, testosterone concentrations are generally higher than 11-KT, with peak levels found after the spawning season. 11-KT, on the other hand, remains at levels less than 1 ng/ml but rises abruptly to 4-6 ng/ml during spermiation at the height of the spawning season. 11-KT also shows individual variations in Arctic char, with dominant males having significantly higher 11-KT levels.

Vitellogenin (carp) EIA Kit (pre-coated)


Detection of the yolk protein Vtg in plasma from juvenile or male fish is a simple and sensitive biomarker for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic effects in fish. Quantification of Vtg has become an accepted screening test for the estrogenic effects of EDCs in fish. The Vtg (carp) EIA kit is a double-antibody immunometric (sandwich) EIA for analyzing Vtg in whole body homogenates and plasma samples. Each kit contains pre-coated plate(s), detecting antibody, secondary antibody-HRP conjugate, purified carp Vtg standard, OPD-peroxidase substrate tablets, PBS tablets, PBS-Tween tablets, BSA, and complete instructions. A five-plate kit contains 2 vials of Vtg and 3 OPD sets, sufficient to run two separate assays (for example 2 plates 3 plates).

Vitellogenin (fathead minnow) EIA Kit (pre-coated)


The Vtg (fathead minnow) EIA kit is a double-antibody immunometric (sandwich) EIA for analyzing Vtg in whole body homogenates and plasma samples.

Vitellogenin (medaka) EIA Kit


The Vtg (medaka) EIA kit is a double-antibody immunometric (sandwich) EIA for analyzing Vtg in whole body homogenates samples. Vtg in fish is a simple and sensitive biomarker for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic effects in fish.

Vitellogenin (rainbow trout) EIA Kit (pre-coated)


The Vtg (rainbow trout) EIA kit is a double-antibody immunometric (sandwich) EIA for analyzing Vtg in whole body homogenates and plasma samples.

Vitellogenin (salmonid) Semi-Quantitative EIA Kit


The assay is based on detection of Vtg by a monoclonal antibody, BN-5, which has high cross reactivity with Vtg from a variety of other species. Quantification of Vtg has become an accepted screening test for the estrogenic effects of EDCs in fish. This assay is a semi-quantitative assay for Vtg from fish plasma and it is not suitable for measuring absolute amounts of Vtg.

Vitellogenin (zebrafish) EIA Kit (pre-coated)


The Vtg (zebrafish) EIA kit is a double-antibody immunometric (sandwich) EIA for analyzing Vtg in whole body homogenates and plasma samples.

Practice EIA Kit


This assay has been developed for researchers that do not have experience performing enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). It can be used as a practice tool allowing you to become comfortable with running EIAs. Practicing these assays can help to decrease errors when samples, time, and costs are at risk. This kit contains enough reagents to run at least four complete standard curves, including blank wells, NSB wells, and maximum binding (B0) wells.

Semi-Quantitative Biomarker EIA Component Kit (anti-mouse)


Detection the egg yolk protein vitellogenin (Vtg), egg shell proteins Zona radiata proteins (Zrp), cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and Metallothionein (MT) are simple and sensitive biomarkers for endocrine pollutant exposure in fish. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method is a well established method suitable for detection of such biomarkers. The semi-quantitative Biomarker ELISA Kit is well suited for applications such as environmental and effluent monitoring and can easily be combined with standard fish tests according to OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals.

Semi-Quantitative Biomarker EIA Component Kit (anti-rabbit)



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