Antibodies to Kinases in the MAPK Pathway
MAPK is the abbreviation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway can be activated by an assortment of extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, cytokines, and stress signals. Pathway activation leads to the coordination of a wide variety of cellular responses involving gene expression, proliferation, survival, apoptosis, metabolism, and differentiation. In mammals, there are five distinct groups of MAPKs:
- the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs),
- the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs),
- the p38 isoforms,
- ERKs 3 and 4,
- and ERK5.
In response to extracellular stimuli, ERKs, JNKs, and the p38 isoforms are activated by upstream MAPK kinases (MAPKKs) which are themselves activated by MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs). For example ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2) are activated by the upstream MAPKKs, MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2). The MAPKKKs for MEK1/2 include A-Raf, B-Raf, Raf-1, and c-Mos which typically receive stimuli from growth factors via cell surface receptors. On the other hand, the p38 isoforms are activated by the MAPKKs, MEK3 and MEK6, which are mainly activated by environmental stress and inflammatory cytokine signals. The major substrates of MAPKs include MAPK-activated kinases (MKs) and transcription factors such as c-Jun, c-Myc, Max, CREB, p53, and ATF-2. The diverse biological functions influenced by MAPK signaling indicate that the MAPK network is complex. This complexity leaves volumes that require further study for a full understanding of the control of the MAPK modules as well as module cross-talk.
1. P. P. Roux and J. Blenis, "ERK and P38 MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases: a Family of Protein Kinases With Diverse Biological Functions," Microbiol.Mol Biol Rev. 68, no. 2 (2004): 320-344.
Bethyl Laboratories Portfolio of MAPK Pathway Antibodies
p38 MAPK Antibodies
Rabbit Monoclonal MAPK Antibodies from Epitomics ...