Antibodies against Proteins in the Circadian Pathway
On many levels circadian rhythm is central to animal physiology.
Based on the daily 24-hour solar cycle and extending to axis-tilt and seasons, the circadian clock functions as an intrinsic time-keeper that coordinates the function of the major organs of the body. At the top of the hierarchy for circadian control lies the superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN receives light signals via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and functions as the master oscillator. As the master, the SCN synchronizes and coordinates slave oscillators located in other parts of the brain as well as in the peripheral organs. At the cellular level, the SCN is implicated to house distinct populations of neurons that hold the molecular machinery required for the function of the master clock. At the molecular level, the clock machinery consists of a group of transcription factors that function under positive and negative feedback loops and regulate gene expression via specific regulatory elements. Central to these feedback loops are the period (Per1, Per2, and Per3) and cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry2) genes whose transcription is regulated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimeric transcription factor. Since this group of clock genes also has been found to be expressed with periodicity in tissues and organs peripheral to the SCN, there is a need to understand how the master and slave oscillators interact. Additionally, since the circadian rhythm has been linked to human health, it will be important to find specifically how these genes play a role in the development of disease.
1. M. Hastings, J. S. ONeill, and E. S. Maywood, "Circadian Clocks: Regulators of Endocrine and Metabolic Rhythms," J Endocrinol. 195, no. 2 (2007): 187-198.
2. S. M. Reppert and D. R. Weaver, "Coordination of Circadian Timing in Mammals," Nature. 418, no. 6901 (2002): 935-941.
Bethyl Laboratories Portfolio of Antibodies against Proteins in the Circadian Pathway
CK1 delta Antibodies
More Antibodies to Proteins involved in Biological Rhythms
- AANAT, Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (Serotonin acetylase) (EC 220.127.116.11) (Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase) (AA-NAT)
- ARNTL2, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 2 (Basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP9) (Brain and muscle ARNT-like 2) (CYCLE-like factor) (CLIF) (Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 6) (bHLHe6) (Member of PAS protein 9) (PAS domain-containing protein 9)
- CCRN4L, Nocturnin (CCR4 protein homolog)
- CLOCK, Circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput (hCLOCK) (EC 18.104.22.168) (Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 8) (bHLHe8)
- CRY1, Cryptochrome-1
- CRY2, Cryptochrome-2
- ENOX2, Ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol exchanger 2 (APK1 antigen) (Cytosolic ovarian carcinoma antigen 1) (Tumor-associated hydroquinone oxidase) (tNOX) [Includes: Hydroquinone [NADH] oxidase (EC 1.-.-.-); Protein disulfide-thiol oxidoreductase (EC 1.-.-.-)]
- FBXL3, F-box/LRR-repeat protein 3 (F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 3A) (F-box/LRR-repeat protein 3A)
- FBXW11, F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 11 (F-box and WD repeats protein beta-TrCP2) (F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 1B) (Homologous to Slimb protein) (HOS)
- GNB2L1, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1 (Cell proliferation-inducing gene 21 protein) (Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein 12.3) (Human lung cancer oncogene 7 protein) (HLC-7) (Receptor for activated C kinase) (Receptor of activated protein kinase C 1) (RACK1)
- HLF, Hepatic leukemia factor
- NFIL3, Nuclear factor interleukin-3-regulated protein (E4 promoter-binding protein 4) (Interleukin-3 promoter transcriptional activator) (Interleukin-3-binding protein 1) (Transcriptional activator NF-IL3A)
- NPAS2, Neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 2 (Neuronal PAS2) (Basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP4) (Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 9) (bHLHe9) (Member of PAS protein 4) (PAS domain-containing protein 4)
- PER1, Period circadian protein homolog 1 (hPER1) (Circadian clock protein PERIOD 1) (Circadian pacemaker protein Rigui)
- PER2, Period circadian protein homolog 2 (hPER2) (Circadian clock protein PERIOD 2)
- PER3, Period circadian protein homolog 3 (hPER3) (Cell growth-inhibiting gene 13 protein) (Circadian clock protein PERIOD 3)
- PROK2, Prokineticin-2 (PK2) (Protein Bv8 homolog)
- TIMELESS, Protein timeless homolog (hTIM)